There are five key takeaways on energy supply in its Summary for Policymakers:
- Low- or no-carbon electricity (renewables, nuclear, and CCS-equipped fossil fuel plants) must increase from the current share of 30% to more than 80% by 2050.
- Fossil fueled power plants without CCS must be phased out entirely by 2100.
- Switching power plants from coal to natural gas can reduce GHG emissions "significantly" in the short term - if methane emissions are "low or mitigated." That's a big - and growing - "if." But any growth in natgas-fired power plants must reverse itself and fall below current levels by 2050, and be phased out by 2100. (See #2.) Natgas-fired electricity has a future only with CCS.
- Bioenergy with CCS (BECCS) could provide "large-scale" net negative emissions power, but the large-scale use of biomass is both a "challenge" and a "risk." Big ones, I think.
- Any way you slice it, CCS is an essential technology.