The natural gas industry maintains that there has never been a documented instance of groundwater contamination resulting from hydrofracturing, and some studies indicate that any risks can be virtually eliminated.
But the industry mantra and the studies are premised on, among other things, the presence of layers of solid rock between fracking activities and groundwater. What if the intervening rock is pinholed with perhaps hundreds of thousands of old, abandoned oil and gas wells?
That changes everything.
That changes everything.
Ongoing assessments and shoddy company performance aside, one of the most serious risks to groundwater from natural gas development is presented by orphaned, abandoned, and undocumented gas wells. They are potential leakage pathways – a threat to public health AND to the natural gas industry.
And Pennsylvania has a lot of them.
In 2000, Pennsylvania’s Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) issued a report - Pennsylvania’s Plan for Addressing Problem Abandoned Wells and Orphaned Wells. The report states:
In the 140 years since the first oil well was drilled, an unknown number of oil and gas wells have been drilled in Pennsylvania. An estimate by the Independent Petroleum Association of America places that number at approximately 325,000. DEP has records of 88,300 operating wells which it regulates, 44,700 plugged wells, and approximately 8,000 orphaned and abandoned wells. The status of the remaining 184,000 wells is unknown.
With proper action, funding, and regulation, the risks posed by those wells can be reduced, and future risk minimized.
First, how do we find those wells? There are scavenger hunts, and high-tech approaches like aeromagnetic surveys - the US Department of Energy is looking for abandoned wells with helicopter-borne metal detectors. Those surveys can find abandoned wells – IF they have intact metal casings. Uncounted wells don’t have such cases, making more difficult, painstaking and laborious measures necessary.
But finding existing abandoned wells, while an urgent need, is not enough. With perhaps hundreds of thousands of shale gas wells to be drilled in Pennsylvania in the coming decades, a healthy measure of prevention must be added to the cure of finding abandoned wells. Despite a century-old problem, Pennsylvania’s bonding requirements for oil and gas wells have been grossly inadequate - $2,500 per well or $25,000 for a blanket bond - leaving taxpayers holding the bag to plug abandoned wells. And unfortunately, despite a study from Carnegie Mellon University that recommended that Pennsylvania require full-cost well bonding – especially important since plugging a Marcellus well can cost $100,000 or more – Pennsylvania’s new Act 13 failed to require full-cost bonding. This is more than a little ironic. Pennsylvania requires full cost bonding when companies drill for gas on state forest land (see paragraphs 16.03 and 16.04 of the DCNR lease document), and that hasn’t diminished industry interest in drilling one iota.
Old wells pose risks to public health and the gas industry. Minimizing those risks serves both interests.
Starting tomorrow, StateImpact Pennsylvania is doing a series of reports examining Pennsylvania’s abandoned oil and gas wells and the problems they can cause. I will update this post daily with links to each story.